## Calculate the REAL scale factor and the angle of rotation from an Android Matrix

After performing transformations such as rotation of a bitmap about an arbitrary point, the scale is lost. Of course, this makes sense because the bitmap is rotated inside the same bounds.

To get the real scale now, along with the most reliable degree of rotation, I had to follow this method. Hope it saves the rest of you a night or two.

```float[] v = new float;
matrix.getValues(v);
// translation is simple
float tx = v[Matrix.MTRANS_X];
float ty = v[Matrix.MTRANS_Y];

// calculate real scale
float scalex = values[Matrix.MSCALE_X];
float skewy = values[Matrix.MSKEW_Y];
float rScale = (float) Math.sqrt(scalex * scalex + skewy * skewy);

// calculate the degree of rotation
float rAngle = Math.round(Math.atan2(v[Matrix.MSKEW_X], v[Matrix.MSCALE_X]) * (180 / Math.PI));
```

## Multi Touch in Android – Translate, Scale, and Rotate

Here’s a quick and easy implementation of Android’s multi touch feature – one finger to move, two to zoom, and three to rotate the image.

Assuming you have a basic understanding of 2D matrix transformations, the Matrix class in Android uses a 3×3 matrix to achieve all of the 2D transformations.

The source code and pre -built APK is available. See the end of this post.

Main activity – MultiTouch.java

```package com.multitouch.example;

import android.app.Activity;
import android.graphics.Matrix;
import android.graphics.PointF;
import android.os.Bundle;
import android.util.FloatMath;
import android.view.MotionEvent;
import android.view.View;
import android.view.View.OnTouchListener;
import android.widget.ImageView;

public class MultiTouch extends Activity implements OnTouchListener {

// these matrices will be used to move and zoom image
private Matrix matrix = new Matrix();
private Matrix savedMatrix = new Matrix();
// we can be in one of these 3 states
private static final int NONE = 0;
private static final int DRAG = 1;
private static final int ZOOM = 2;
private int mode = NONE;
// remember some things for zooming
private PointF start = new PointF();
private PointF mid = new PointF();
private float oldDist = 1f;
private float d = 0f;
private float newRot = 0f;
private float[] lastEvent = null;

@Override
public void onCreate(Bundle savedInstanceState) {
super.onCreate(savedInstanceState);
setContentView(R.layout.main);
ImageView view = (ImageView) findViewById(R.id.imageView);
view.setOnTouchListener(this);
}

public boolean onTouch(View v, MotionEvent event) {
// handle touch events here
ImageView view = (ImageView) v;
switch (event.getAction() & MotionEvent.ACTION_MASK) {
case MotionEvent.ACTION_DOWN:
savedMatrix.set(matrix);
start.set(event.getX(), event.getY());
mode = DRAG;
lastEvent = null;
break;
case MotionEvent.ACTION_POINTER_DOWN:
oldDist = spacing(event);
if (oldDist > 10f) {
savedMatrix.set(matrix);
midPoint(mid, event);
mode = ZOOM;
}
lastEvent = new float;
lastEvent = event.getX(0);
lastEvent = event.getX(1);
lastEvent = event.getY(0);
lastEvent = event.getY(1);
d = rotation(event);
break;
case MotionEvent.ACTION_UP:
case MotionEvent.ACTION_POINTER_UP:
mode = NONE;
lastEvent = null;
break;
case MotionEvent.ACTION_MOVE:
if (mode == DRAG) {
matrix.set(savedMatrix);
float dx = event.getX() - start.x;
float dy = event.getY() - start.y;
matrix.postTranslate(dx, dy);
} else if (mode == ZOOM) {
float newDist = spacing(event);
if (newDist > 10f) {
matrix.set(savedMatrix);
float scale = (newDist / oldDist);
matrix.postScale(scale, scale, mid.x, mid.y);
}
if (lastEvent != null && event.getPointerCount() == 3) {
newRot = rotation(event);
float r = newRot - d;
float[] values = new float;
matrix.getValues(values);
float tx = values;
float ty = values;
float sx = values;
float xc = (view.getWidth() / 2) * sx;
float yc = (view.getHeight() / 2) * sx;
matrix.postRotate(r, tx + xc, ty + yc);
}
}
break;
}

view.setImageMatrix(matrix);
return true;
}

/**
* Determine the space between the first two fingers
*/
private float spacing(MotionEvent event) {
float x = event.getX(0) - event.getX(1);
float y = event.getY(0) - event.getY(1);
return FloatMath.sqrt(x * x + y * y);
}

/**
* Calculate the mid point of the first two fingers
*/
private void midPoint(PointF point, MotionEvent event) {
float x = event.getX(0) + event.getX(1);
float y = event.getY(0) + event.getY(1);
point.set(x / 2, y / 2);
}

/**
* Calculate the degree to be rotated by.
*
* @param event
* @return Degrees
*/
private float rotation(MotionEvent event) {
double delta_x = (event.getX(0) - event.getX(1));
double delta_y = (event.getY(0) - event.getY(1));
double radians = Math.atan2(delta_y, delta_x);
return (float) Math.toDegrees(radians);
}
}
```

An important function that is always used is postXx(). This function concats a new matrix of the type Xx to the existing matrix object. Using setXx() will reset the matrix’s Xx property.
Main layout – main.xml

```<?xml version="1.0" encoding="utf-8"?>

<FrameLayout
xmlns:android="http://schemas.android.com/apk/res/android"
android:layout_width="fill_parent"
android:layout_height="fill_parent">

<ImageView android:id="@+id/imageView"
android:layout_width="fill_parent"
android:layout_height="fill_parent"
android:src="@drawable/butterfly"
android:scaleType="matrix" />

</FrameLayout>
```

Browse and download the source code on GitHub.